Thank you for your inquiry. I would suggest checking for mRNA degradation. Make sure you are using serum free reagents (ie Optimem) that are rigorously RNAse free. We use special pipets for mRNA and for example do not do minipreps or maxipreps with these pipets. RNasezap can be used to clean work surfaces and pipets. FACS signal from the Cy labeled RNA does not ensure that there was good delivery since the RNA could simply be trapped in an endosome. This experiment should work well in the 293 cells, we have no experience with the other cell line. Additionally, you make want to experiment with the timing. Though I would expect to see EGFP expression at your indicated time points, many factors influence expression and half-life. We and others typically see peak expression between 12-18 hours.
At the smaller scales, 15 umole and below, there is no guarantee of final yield. Each oligo has unique synthetic properties based on its sequence and modifications; therefore it is not easy to predict how much material will result from a particular synthesis.
Our general expectations for HPLC purified unmodified DNA oligonucleotides are as follows:
0.2 µmole scale 5 – 15 OD260 units (˜0.15 – 0.5 mg)
1.0 µmole scale 20 – 60 OD260 units (˜0.66 – 2 mg)
If you require a specific yield, please let us know when you place your order or request a quote.
Thank you for your inquiry. Yes, 2-amino-2′-dATP is the dDTP that Suspene describes. We do not know for sure whether pfu polymerase is able to incorporate these nucleotides but it probably doesn’t. We recommend trying NEB’s Therminator.
Please let me know if you have any additional questions.
In general, 100 ng/uL is not considered a high concentration. We supply our mRNA at 1 mg/mL in 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. That said, the mRNA sequence and structure can dictate its solubility. We recommend heating the mRNA for 15 min at 37°C to improve solubility. Long incubations at elevated temperatures should be avoided.
In regards to the diminishing activity of your mRNA, have you checked for degradation? In addition to the solubility, your issues with mRNA activity may also result from RNA degradation over time. To combat degradation you should use RNase-free reagents and materials and use proper technique. Additionally, we suggest that you aliquot your RNA to limit freeze/thaw cycles. A higher concentration may also improve stability however could exacerbate your issues with solubility.
Please let us know if we can help you further.
We are able to synthesize an RNA dinucleotide containing an intrinsically fluorescent ribo-nucleotide analog.
I have included a link to the product page for a few options we can offer:
For a formal quotation, please contact us through firstname.lastname@example.org
Product Specialist I
TriLink does not take any claim on an aptamer sequence determined from one of our Nucleic Acid Libraries for Aptamer Selection. Please let us know if you need any additional information.
Thank you for your question. We recommend the Q5® High Fidelity 2x Master Mix (catalog # M0492S) from NEB for use with the CleanTag™ Ligation Kit for Small RNA Library Prep. You can view our full list of recommended reagents here.
Please let me know if you have any other questions.
Thanks for contacting us. We can ship lyophilized RNA oligos to New Zealand by FedEx International Priority. The estimated freight cost to New Zealand is $65. The freight cost is based on FedEx daily rates and can vary depending on the shipping address. Please note FedEx does not allow dry ice shipments to New Zealand, so any product requiring dry ice would need to be shipped through a specialized courier coordinated by you.
You can request a quote for your 10 nt RNA oligo in OligoBuilder®. Please let me know if there’s anything else I can help you with.
Thank you for your question. We suggest using the C12-amino linker as recommended in the Luminex probe/primer design manual. It is likely that the protocol was optimized for this linker.
Please let us know if you have any additional questions.
You are correct in that the CleanTag™ chemistry can fully suppress adapter dimer formation. If you are using very low input levels (less than 10 ng) you may start to see some adapter dimer but it should be minimal compared to amount of tagged library. Dilution of the adapters per the product insert is key to keep adapter dimer low at lower inputs.
Yes, you can load magnetic bead purified samples without gel purification directly onto a sequencer and get good quality sequencing data.
Sabrina Shore, MS
Thank you for your interest in TriLink BioTechnologies, Inc. Unfortunately, we do not offer aptamer design or selection services. We recommend Base Pair Bio who should be able to help you with your research needs.
We can synthesize the aptamer once the sequence is determined. Please let us know once you have a sequence identified and we will gladly provide a quotation.
Thank you for your inquiry. 3′-dATP and 3′-dGTP are shipped FedEx Priority International on dry ice. The average cost to ship to Cambridge, UK is $130 USD. Please note that our online cart uses general estimates based on country which can vary from the actual shipping cost. For example, since other regions in the UK can be more expensive, the online estimate is $140 but the final invoice will only reflect the actual cost of shipment, not the full estimate.
The blocking groups most often described in the literature are 3′ dideoxy-C, 3′ C3 Spacer (C3-OH) or 3′ Amino Linker (C6-NH2). All the mentioned modifications permanently block the 3′ hydroxyl group of the 3′ base. We can use the 3′ Amino Linker and label it with the Cyanine 5 dye which would continue to block the 3′ hydroxyl group.
Please contact us if you have any other questions.
Sabrina Shore, MS
Scientist, Research & Development
Thank you for your inquiry. A final concentration of 1 uM means you have 1 μmole or 14.34 ug per L. Concentrations should be confirmed with OD readings of the final solution. Please remember, the extinction coefficient and molecular weight reported is calculated average and the final values of a randomer oligonucleotide may vary.
We’re happy to discuss how to measure the concentration of you solution. Please email us to discuss measuring the absorbance.
Thank you for your inquiry about 5-Carboxy-dCTP. This product was functionally tested when it was added to our catalog.
In a single pase pair extension assay, 5-Carboxy-dCTP incorporated less efficiently than dCTP with Klenow using a buffer of pH 7.9. 5-Carboxy-dCTP was also tested in PCR amplification of a ~500 base pair Lambda gDNA in a pH 8.4 buffer. The PCR product formed with 75% substition of dCTP. Our chemists believe that 5-carboxy-dCTP should be stable enough in NEB buffer (pH 7.9) to be used with Klenow DNA polymerase but please remember to store the product at -20°C.
Please let me know if this provides adequate information for your experiments.
Thank you for your inquiry. TriLink is able to offer different attachment chemistries. Based upon your application, we would match up the functional group on the oligo based upon the reactive group of the magnetic nanoparticles. Some possible chemistries include Thiol/Maleimide or NHS-ester/primary amine of a linker.
TriLink’s DADE (decanoic acid diester) linker offers a novel way of preparing conjugates more economically and with much more flexibility. We can readily prepare 5′ carboxyl linkers. This linker can be used to conjugate to amines using conventional carbodiimide chemistry. Though less convenient than the solid phase method described in DADE: A Pre-activated Carboxyl Linker, Applications and Methods, solution phase methods may be necessary at times. The DADE linker is also useful for conjugation to amine bearing molecules.
We can also employ other attachment chemistries if you can provide the reactive group on the nanoparticles. Please contact our Product Management group to continue the discussion.
Thank you for your question. We see a modest amount of incorporation of 1-Thio-ATP (N-8005) using T7 polymerase (≤25%). However, preliminary studies have shown greater incorporation the other 1-Thio analogs (≥50%). For 2´F incorporation (N-1007) we recommend using T7 R&DNA™. Though we have not tested 2´ OMe analogs with wt T7 polymerase, this paper suggests that T7 polymerase with a Y639F/H784A double mutation is optimal for incorporation.
Please let me know if you have further questions.
Thank you for your interested in our RNA oligonucleotides. You are correct, the 3′ end of an unmodified oligonucleotide would be the terminal base in your sequence with hydroxyl groups (-OH) on the 2′ and 3′ sugars.
We also offer a variety of linkers that can be used to have different chemistries on the 5′ and 3′ end of an oligonucleotide. You can use an amino linker for reactions with and activated carbonyl and a thiol linker for reactions with maleimides. The order of the chemistry performed is important as a maleimide will react with the free amine.
Please let us know if you’d like to discuss your project or quote a new oligonucleotide.
Thank you for your questions regarding aptamer conformation. Aptamer conformation is not straightforward, as a given sequence can take on multiple conformations. While some aptamers maintain one primary conformation, others do not. The secondary structure can depend on the actual sequence of the apatmer as well as external factors, including the pH and composition of the dilution buffer. In regards to whether aptamers can behave differently due to batch to batch variations, one can imagine a scenario where purity may influence structure and function. However, in general the synthesis should not affect aptamer conformation. Interestingly, we too were not able to easily find any online literature that specifically documents this phenomenon, though The Aptamer Handbook, edited by Sven Klussman presents a lot of useful information on aptamer activity, selection and design.
Please let me know if I can help you further.
Thank you for your question regarding SELEX design. In his 2009 paper titled Design, Synthesis, and Amplification of DNA Pools for In Vitro Selection, Dr. Andrew Ellington suggests using primers of approximately 20 nucleotides due to their melting temperature. To avoid secondary structure formation, he suggests using MIT’s web based program PRIMER3. Please let me know if you have further questions.
Thank you for your question. TriLink calculates the extinction coefficient of an oligonucleotide by using the nearest neighbor method and reports it on the Certificate of Analysis. You can learn more about extinction coefficients in our Technical Article, An Introduction to Extinction Coefficients and Molecular Weights of Oligonucleotides. After diluting an oligonucleotide, the concentration can be determined by measuring absorbance with a spectrophotometer with UV lamp and quartz cuvette. Beer’s law can be used to calculate the concentration. If your oligonucleotide was supplied lyophilized, I recommend diluting to your preferred concentration using the method described.
Please let us know if you have any further questions.
Thank you for your interest in TriLink’s Aptamer Libraries. The complexity of the final library varies with the random region length. Libraries with longer random regions have more unique sequence motifs than libraries with shorter random regions. However, not all possible unique sequences can be represented in each selection. In contrast, libraries with shorter random regions will give you a better representation of all possible sequences but are inherently less complex than a library with a longer randomer region. However, once an aptamer is selected shorter aptamers are easier and less expensive to synthesize
Aptamers have been designed to bind to specific amino acids.Geiger et. al. found an aptamer that distinguished with a 12,000-fold improvement between L-arginine and D-arginine. I don’t know the specific discrimination between Proline and Glycine. It would need to be determined experimentally. Proline and Glycine have different structures but the location within the protein and the protein folding may affect the ability to find an appropriate aptamer.
Good luck with your experiments.
Sabrina Shore, MS
Thank you for your interest in TriLink. We have the ability to use custom phosphoramidites for oligonucleotide synthesis and routinely do so. Depending on the final length of your construct, we also offer chemical addition of a 5′ N7-Methyl-G cap to mimic natural mRNA.
We will need to discuss your project to understand the full request and discuss the options to incorporation a site specific mRNA modification. Our Product Management will be in contact with you shortly.
Dear Dr. Xusheng Qiu,
Thank you for your inquiry. We can prepare our triphosphates as the Li+, Na+ or TEA salt form. I believe our dDTP is currently in the Li+ salt form. I will have our technical support team contact you regarding preparing the Na+ salt form.
Thank you for your interest in TriLink’s custom oligo synthesis. Thethree thiol linkers you mention differ by the position on the oligonucleotide (5′ or 3′) and the linker length (3 or 6 carbon chain). The structure of the reduced thiol linker can be found on each product page. Thiol modified oligonucleotides are shipped as the protected thiol (for example, C6-S-S-C6, aka disulfide) to avoid dimerization. Prior to use, the disulfide can be reduced using TCEP. Thiol modified oligos can be ordered through OligoBuilder®.
Thiol modified oligos can be direclty linked to a gold surface as described by Li Z, Jin R, Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL. .
Please let us know if you have any additional questions.
Thank you for your interest in TriLink and the 5′ Maleimide-modifier. TriLink specializes in working closely with our customers for the individual requirements of each project including working with customer supplied material for various types of reactions.
A Product Management Specialist will be in contact via email to discuss the specifics and technical aspects of your project.
Thank you for your inquiry. I believe that you are referring to the elements needed in your transcription template to create a functional mRNA. These are located upstream or downstream from your open reading frame (gene). If this is what you are referring to, I have listed the elements below.
Your mRNA transcription template must include:
1. Promoter, preferably the T7 promoter
2. 5′ untranslated region with a strong Kozak sequence
3. ORF beginning with a start codon and ending with a stop codon
4. 3′ untranslated region
5. Poly(A) track top strand (this is not the same as a poly(A) signal)*
6. Unique restriction site at the end of the cassette that is suitable for linearization
*Most plasmids designed for expression in a eukaryotic cell contain a poly(A) signal rather than a poly (A) stretch. If you do not have a poly(A) track in your plasmid a poly(A) tail must be added through a poly(A) polymerase reaction.
If this is not the information you were seeking, please email email@example.com and our technical team will assist you.
Brea Midthune, Ph.D.
Business Development Analyst II
Dear Yun Hui,
Thanks for asking about our mitoPrimers™. mitoPrimers™ were designed based on the Hypervariable 1 and 2 regions of human mtDNA to prevent any cross-species amplification between species.
I compared the A1 and CA mitoPrimers™ to the Rattus norvegicus mitochondrial genome and found that the A1 mitoPrimer™ aligns with two mismatched base pairs. C1 mitoPrimer™ did not align. I would recommend you compare the primer sequences to your specific rat genome using BLAST to determine if the mitoPrimers™ are compatible.
Please do not hesitate to contact me with any further questions.
Sabrina Shore, MS
Senior Research Associate
Thank you for your interest in TriLink. Poly guanosine and deoxyguanosine stretches have the propensity to form tetraplexes (complexes consisting of four different strands all bound at the poly G region). These complexes are very tight and make oligonucleotide synthesis difficult.
The use of 7-deaza-dG during PCR reduces the secondary structure but, unfortunately, the 7-deaza-dG and 7-deaza-8-aza-dG amidites have the same innate properties as guanosine during oligonucleotide synthesis. Synthetic and processing capabilities would still be problematic. For multiple incorporations of 7-deaza-dG, CSO is recommended as the oxidizing solution to combat degradation.
TriLink has devised specialized protocols for multiple and/or consecutive insertions of guanosine or 7-deaza guanosine. Due to the complexity of manufacturing, there is typically reduced yield or purity compared to a sequence with better base distribution. The number of incorporations of guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine and/or 7-deaza-8-aza- guanosine will determine the final effect.
I would recommend trying the unmodified compound before proceeding with the modified version as the cost of the modifications will lead to an overall higher price.
Thank you for your question. Unfortunately, we cannot provide expiration dates on specific oligonucleotides, as this data could differ with each individual sequence. As long as an oligonucleotide is stored at -20°C or lower for long term storage and multiple freeze thaw cycles are avoided, we have seen that dye labeled oligonucleotides can be stable up to 6 months and unmodified oligonucleotides stable up to 1+ years.
Thank you for your interest in our poster, Pushing the Limits of PCR, qPCR and RT-PCR Using CleanAmp™ dNTPs. An activation step is not required for RT-PCR as the CleanAmp™ dNTPs are activated by the combination of heat at 47°C and the acidification of Tris Buffer with increasing temperature. This releases enough dNTPs to generate a cDNA during the RT reaction. The slower activation helps decrease off-target reaction during both the RT and PCR steps.
I recommend using the conditions shown in Figure 9 of the poster which I have included below for your convenience. Of note, we recommend using a traditional 3-step thermocyling protocol, as it will provide more consistent performance than a faster 2-step protocol.
RT-PCR Conditions: Buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl; 75 mM KCl; 3 mM MgCl2), 0.4 mM CleanAmp™ dNTPs, 0.5 µM Forward Primer, 1.0 µM Reverse Primer, 100 U M-MLV (RNase H-) RT, 2.5 U Taq polymerase, 0.032-500 ng Target RNA, 10 mM DTT, 0.4 U/µL RNase Inhibitor, 25 µL reaction.
RT-PCR Cycling Conditions: 47°C (30 min); 94°C (10 min); [94°C (15 sec), 62°C (30 sec), 72°C (1 min)] 40X; 72°C (5 min)
Sabrina Shore, MS
Thank you for your question. Labeled primers are typically used versus labeled dNTPs to allow for control over the number of fluorophores that are associated with each fragment. I am unaware of a protocol that uses labeled dNTPs.
If you decide to use labeled primers, TriLink offers a range of IRDyes for oligonucleotide labeling through OligoBuilder®. I’m sorry I could be of more help and good luck with your research.
Natasha Paul, PhD
Thank you for your question. You can order your dye-modified oligo through OligoBuilder®, our online ordering system.
Texas Red can be incorporated into your oligo by using a selective amino linker, like Thymidine-5-C2 Amino Linker or the C6 version. This modification can replace one of your bases and hybridize with your target.
Please let me know if there is anything else I can help you with.
Thank you for your questions about our Aptamer Libraries. NeoVentures Biotechnology analyzed a TriLink library to show the randomness of the library by enzymatic digest and by sequencing.
The pSNAPf Vector from New England Biolabs contains both a NdeI site and an SpeI site. Alternatively, a PCR fragment amplified with Taq polymerase will have TA ends that can be cloned into aTOPO® TA vector from Life Technologies.
Thank you for interest in our randomer service. The expected yield of our various scales can be found on the Phosphodiester Product Information. An 0.2 μmole HPLC purified, DNA synthesis typically yields 5-15 OD260 units which is 25-75 nmoles of final product for an oligo with an extinction coefficient of 200 OD260/μmole. 25 nmoles of product is equivalent to 1.5 x 1016 sequences. You would expect on average 9.0 x 108 copes of each of your ~1.7 x 107 possible sequences within the 25 nmole yield.
TriLink has done extensive research to optimize the “n” wobble (A, C, G, T) to achieve as close to a 1:1:1:1 equal ratio as possible in the final oligo product. We also offer an enzymatic digest assay which measures the base distribution of the final product. You can order your oligo through OligoBuilder® and include your yield requirement and if you are interested in an enzymatic digest in the Notes.
Natasha Paul, PhD
You can order a synthesis of each of the oligos you need through our OligoBuilder® system. OligoBuilder® will provide a price based on the scale and purification required. If you unsure of the scale, you can include the amount of material needed in the comments sections.
You can reference our OligoBuilder® Help Section or contact us if you’d like a further explanation.
Thank you for your question. The inclusion of modified bases in a transcription can alter several parameters. If you are including ARCA in the reaction and reducing the GTP (e.g. 4:1 ARCA:GTP) in order to give good capping, this will reduce your expected transcription yields by about 3-4 fold. In our hands, full substitution of U and C with pseudo-U and 5-methyl-C do no significantly reduce transcription yields. For an ARCA cappedmRNA fully substituted with pseudo-U and 5-methyl-C, we typically see crude yields of 1.5-2 mg/ml of transcription. We optimize transcription reactions by varying the MgCl2 concentration. 4-6 mM over total NTPs usually works well.
With regards to the 260/280 ratio, the extinction coefficients and lambda maxes of pseudo-U and 5-methyl C differ from U and C. The lambda max for pseudo-U is 265 vs 262 and 5-Methyl-C is 279 vs 271. Thus, pseudo-U and 5-methyl-C substitution would be predicted to give you a higher 260/280 ratio than normal NTPs. If you are observing a lower 260/280 ratio, this might mean that you are actually doing a better job of removing protein in this prep. I would not be concerned by this.
With regard to mobility, we do sometimes see that some modifications change the mobility of the RNA on gels. Base modification can change the secondary structure of the mRNA and thus the mobility on non-denaturing gels. We recommend glyoxal treating the mRNA with NorthernMax®-Gly Loading Dye and then running it with NorthernMax® 10X Running Buffer (do not use TAE or TBE).
I hope this information is helpful. If you continue to have problems, you could considering order a custom mRNA.
Anton McCaffrey, PhD
We typically not do recommend using a subtraction correction and recommend measuring the concentration of a T16 oligo at 260 nm, the wavelength at which thymidine absorbs. If you are trying to employ a correction for a specific buffer, the exact subtraction would depend upon the buffer you are using. Please contact us for additional information.
Thank you for your questions. The 3′ Biotin TEG modification does include a phosphate group between the TEG linker and the first nucleotide in your sequence. We look forward to helping you with your project!
A paper by Clark et. al. which studied the affect of different analogs on DNA methyltransferase showed that while dG and 7-deaza-dG will inhibit methyltransferase to a similar extent, they did not review the scenario where dC is upstream from 7-deaza-dG. The findings show that dG and 7-deaza-dG have similar properties and therfore, dC followed by 7-deaza-dG may be tolerated by the DNA methyltransferase. The only sure answer can be found by experimental testing.
Thank you for contacting TriLink. I am not aware of any specific enzyme which is known to incorporate 5-carboxy-dCTP however; since different analogs incorporate with different efficiencies, I recommend performing some initial PCR experiments using natural:modified dNTPs in ratios such as 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 0:1 to identify the best conditions. Alternatively, decreasing the elongation temperature, increasing elongation time in PCR cycle, increasing concentration of dGTP and 5-carboxy-dCTP or adjusting the pH may support incorporation. Please keep in mind this modification is sensitive to pH and should be kept in basic conditions. Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any further questions.
The only analog that has the properties you described is our CleanAmp™ dNTPs. Although the protecting group will not be stable during the elevated temperatures of PCR, certain enzymes such as the Therminator series of enzymes can incorporate this type of analogs. However, incorporation would need to be performed at low temperatures, such as at room temp. Then, a heat activation step can be used to remove the protecting group.
The first step is to identify the aptamer for the analyte of choice using one of the many selection protocols available. We recommend that you use a random library with no more than 40 random bases. Longer ones will yield aptamers that will be more difficult and expensive to prepare synthetically, especially if the aptamer is heavily modified. You can review our stocked libraries to see if one may be used during your selection.
Once you have the sequence, it is fairly easy for us to modify your aptamer with a reactive moiety for conjugation to a metal. For instance, we can put sulfur on the aptamer for direct conjugation to a gold particle. Once you have identified the metal(gold is well established in the literature) we can help with the decision regarding chemistry.
Please contact us for more details.
Thank you for your interest in our RNA transcription service. We believe our capabilities are only limited by customers imaginations. Please submit a quote request with the details of your project to initiate discussions with our Product Management Team.
We understand you are looking to perform an aptamer selection for a metabolite of interest. Once selected, you will put this into one of the intergenic regions. In the absence of metabolite, this region will be linear, while in the presence of metabolite, this region will fold into a complex structure. The presence of this structure will then block translation. Therefore, we believe you are asking if you can design your aptamer library to have a 5’- and 3’- end that is fixed to match the intergenic sequences, with a random number of nucleotides (N20, N30) in between. And the answer to this is yes! We would be happy to make a custom library for you. This construct can be priced and ordered through OligoBuilder.
A 5′ amine modified oligonucleotide will be delivered ready to conjugate to a succinimidyl ester.
Please keep in mind that TriLink can perform the conjugation and purify the final product for you. We can conjugate most commercial succinimidyl esters or one you supply.
We run mass spec and PAGE analysis on every oligo ordered as part of our quality system. The PAGE analysis allows qualitative assessment and mass spec confirms identity. An HPLC or gel densitometry is required for quantification of purity. HPLC and other analytics can be requested at the time of order. If you are not sure which analytical would be best for your requirement, just ask!
In regards to the DNP-TEG labeled oligonucleotides, we recommend requesting an AX-HPLC analysis.
In this whitepaper, we quantified the amount of amplicon formed as a function of the amount of input biotinylated nucleotide by gel densitometry. In particular, the percent amplicon yield for a given percentage of biotinylated nucleotide was normalized to an reaction which contained only natural nucleotides.
While this approach can be used to identify optimal reaction conditions that will allow for biotinylated nucleotide incorporation in PCR without sacrificing amplicon yield, this does not measure the amount of biotin in the PCR product itself. Should direct quantification of the biotin content be of interest, enzymatic digestion of the isolated product is one way to do this. Eadie, et. al.and Andrus, et. al.describe this technique in their publications.
A. Photobleaching of different fluorophores has been reviewed for use in a number of applications including quantitative microscopy and fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR). Dailey, et. al. reviewed studies of photobleaching in different systems, as well as different methods employed to reduce photobleaching.
While 6-FAM is less susceptible to photobleaching than FITC, newer dyes have been developed that are more stable. For example, Panchuk-Voloshina, et al. demonstrated the stability of Alexa Dyes over FAM and FITC.
A. We have documented Biotin-AA-dCTP (N-5002) incorporating at a very high percent substitution for dCTP, up to 97%, in our white paper: PCR incorporation of modified dNTPs: the substrate properties of biotinylated dNTPs. We do not have analagous PCR data on the efficiency of the N4-Biotin-OBEA-dCTP (N-5004), but since the modification is to the N4 nitrogen, it may interfere with Watson-Crick base pairing. Therefore, while this dCTP analog can be incorporated in PCR, the percent substitution for dCTP may not be as high as for Biotin-AA-dCTP.
As you eluded to, different analogs will incorporate in PCR with varying efficiency and some optimization may be needed. We recommend performing some initial PCR experiments using natural:modified dNTPs in ratios such as 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 0:1 to identify the best conditions for modified nucleotide incorporation with robust amplicon yield.
1-Thio-2′-Deoxyadenosine-5′-Triphosphate (N-8001) and 1-Thio-2′-Deoxycytidine-5′-Triphosphate (N-8002) can be incorporated by Taq in PCR. However, not all analogs will incorporate with the same efficiency in PCR; some optimization may be needed. We recommend performing some initial PCR experiments using natural:modified dNTPs in ratios such as 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 0:1 to identify the best conditions for modified nucleotide incorporation with robust amplicon yield.
We recommend resuspending oligonucleotides in aqueous, neutral solution. It would be best to resuspend your trimer oligonucleotide in DDI water. If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us.
Have a question about specialty oligonucleotides? Post a comment below.
Thank you for your question about how to best conjugate 2′-F-RNA aptamers onto nanoparticles. Depending on the type of nanoparticle you use (e.g., gold, quantum dot, magnetic or carbohydrate nanoparticles), there are different approaches for how to perform the conjugation… Read More
Have a question about aptamers? Post a comment below.